Planning is to prepare a Road Map to achieve goals.
In 1987 D.Getz defined tourism planning as "a process, based on research and evaluation, which seeks to optimize the potential contribution of tourism to human welfare and environmental quality".
Faludi, in 1973, defined tourism planning as "Planning is a very important part of the process by which governments manage tourism at the national, local and organizational levels".
What is Tourism Planning?
The upkeep and expansion of the tourism sector in a particular area is referred to as tourism planning. Planning for tourism is, of course, a crucial component.
Creating strategies and plans to increase, develop, and stimulate tourism for/in a destination may be summed up as tourism planning. The primary motivation behind establishing and implementing strategies for the tourist industry is to generate money, which will eventually raise the GDP of a nation or region.
What is the need for Tourism Planning?
For the expansion of the sector important to plan tourism activities for the following reasons:
- It is necessary to plan tourism activities on different levels and in various manners to promote tourism and boost the economy.
- To provide quality to both tourists and residents.
- It involves making major decisions which cannot be taken spontaneously.
What are the components of Tourism Planning
- Exploration phase/ Preparatory
- Planning phase/Feasibility/
- Zoning phase/Formal planning
- Design and implementation phase
- Operational phase
Most nations that have successfully planned their tourism can be found online and are regarded as incredible holiday destinations. People go to these nations hoping their travel vlogs will increase their subscriber count on YouTube. That is an indication of success in the modern day.
Benefits of Tourism Planning
Tourism destination planning should be a vital component of every destination's tourism development plan to get the best outcomes and please all stakeholders. While some places do a great job of maintaining sustainable tourism, others (typically developing countries) need to recognize the significance of comprehensive tourism development planning.
Tourism planning can benefit various parties involved from the industry in the following ways:
- It boosts revenue and employment thanks to tourist spending.
- It safeguards cultural and natural assets so that visitors can enjoy them.
- It broadens the comprehension of cultural diversity
- It constructs new infrastructure, such as sewage systems, roads, etc., for the community.
Impacts of Tourism Planning
The impacts of tourism destination planning can be sorted into seven general categories:
Formulating an approach to tourism policy and planning:
- Social and cultural
- Crowding and congestion
- Community attitude
According to Inskeep, six "golden standards" should be followed when creating a strategy for tourist planning and policy (1991).
1. Goal Oriented: Tourism Planning should be oriented to achieve broad national and community goals.
2. Integrative: Integrating tourist policy and planning into the economy, land use and infrastructure, conservation, and environmental planning.
3. Market Driven: Planning for successful tourism growth in a cutthroat international market.
4. Resource Driven: Developing tourism that capitalizes on the location's inherent advantages while preserving and improving the features and experiences of existing tourism resources.
5. Consultative: Considering broader community attitudes, needs, and desires to determine what the population will accept.
6. Systematic: utilizing primary or secondary information to support planners conceptually or predictably, incorporating knowledge from other tourist locations
Levels of Tourism Planning
Planning and policy for the tourism industry occur at several levels. This can be done in a top-down approach, with international or national bodies, or a bottom-up approach from a local level.
1. International Tourism Planning: Tourism planning at the international level typically involves international transportation services, the movement and scheduling of tourist tours between different countries, the development of significant tourist attractions and facilities in neighboring countries, as well as the working strategies and promotional programs of many nations.
2. National Tourism Planning: Tourism policy, infrastructural facilities, and a physical structure plan, which includes significant tourist attractions, chosen tourism development regions, international entrance points, facilities, and services, are all addressed at the national level of tourism planning. Additionally, it is concerned with the quantity, types, and quality of lodging and other essential tourist facilities and services; the country's major travel routes and their regional connections; tourism organization
rights, laws, and investment policies; marketing and promotion strategies for the industry; education and training initiatives; and environmental, economic, and sociocultural analysis.
3. Regional Tourism Planning: Regional planning considers factors such as regional policy, regional entrance points, transportation facilities, and services; the types and locations of tourism attractions; the quantity, varieties, and places of lodging and other tourist facilities and services; and the sites of tourist development regions, such as resort areas.
They will also oversee sociocultural, environmental, economic, and impact analyses, regional education and training programmes, marketing strategies, investment policies, organizational structures, legal frameworks, and implementation strategies, including project plans and zoning ordinances.
4. Local Tourism Planning: Participants at the local level will think about the analyses, outputs, outcomes, and assessment of tourism planning at the ground level.
Types of Tourism Planning
Before creating a comprehensive plan to market the destination, the following types of tourism planning are taken into account:
Spatial Tourism Planning: Spatial tourism planning attempts to thoroughly process social, environmental, and economic change to bring about certain ends. Drawing plans, maps or diagrams are put together to decide where socio-spatial activities can occur.
Sectoral Tourism Planning: In this kind of planning, the regions are divided into sections, and each section is called a sector. It concentrates on a manageable area and takes into account the specific infrastructure, land use, transportation, and environmental requirements of that region. Depending on the nature of the products or services provided, economic, social, and administrative activities are grouped into sectors.
Complex Tourism Planning: When various regions are considered for the purpose of tourism planning, it is known as complex tourism planning. These regions are to be developed comprehensively because of the significant interest shown by international tourists. There is a possibility that these regions are located far away from one another.
Integrated Tourism Planning: Integrated tourism refers to making tourism the primary industry in a given area by systematically and comprehensively promoting all available economic, social, and tourism resources.
Sustainable Tourism Planning: Sustainable tourism planning involves striking the correct balance between the requirements of people and the environment. It entails stating the community's mission, vision, and unique selling point or identity in clear terms. With the help of this type of destination planning in our local communities, we are better equipped to plan for the long term, and respond to changing target markets, trends, and emergencies like the Covid-19 outbreak. Additionally, it guarantees that resources are allocated properly while ethically and sustainably establishing local communities. This method of tourism planning benefits people and places in positive ways on all fronts—socially, economically, culturally, and environmentally—puts sustainability at its core.
Centralized Tourism Planning: Centralized tourism planning is done by a single authority, usually the state or central government.
Decentralized Tourism Planning: Organizations are interested in developing tourist spots and planning the various activities visitors can enjoy. (Joint Venture).
They take assistance from government.
Suggested Read: Sustainable Tourism
Frequently Asked Questions
Q1. Why is tourism planning important?
A1. Destination development plans should include tourism planning since it promotes a destination's long-term viability and encourages cooperation among important stakeholders..
Q2. What are the features of tourism planning?
A2. Three general principles of planning for tourism can be specified as anticipation, regulation and monitoring.
Q3. What are the barriers to tourism planning?
A3. A3. According to earlier research conducted in several nations, a common pattern of issues has emerged. For instance, financial constraints, a lack of knowledge, an insufficient amount of time, and other issues have prevented local governments from incorporating tourism into their development plans.