History and Thailand as we know it
With long periods of Thailand’s History, according to evidences and studies, Sukhothai was the first kingdom of Thailand.
At that time, an early Thai script was invented by King Ramkhamhaeng, the great king of Sukhothai, and there also were records about events in the king’s reign. After Sukhothai period, the new kingdoms arose that are Ayuthaya, Thonburi and Rattanakosin which is the present kingdom of Thailand. Each period owns its important Historical events and interesting cultural changes.
In Sukhothai period, King Sri Indraditya founded Sukhothai in 1238 governed by the monarchy system.
In Ayuthaya Period, King U Thong founded the kingdom in 1350, and the kingdom then became powerful in politics and economy of Southeast Asia. Ayuthaya became stronger by firmly gathering groups of Thai and connecting to foreign countries such as Portugal, France, Netherlands, China, and Japan.
Ayuthaya Kingdom was destroyed by Burmese troops in 1767. That was the end of Ayuthaya period.
After the destruction of Ayuthaya period, King Taksin collected his troops to defeat Burmese troops and chose Thonburi as the new capital. After his death, King Yot Fa (Rama I) founded Chakri dynasty and decided to move the capital to Bangkok, so it was beginning of Rattanakosin period.
King Rama I was the first king of Rattanakosin. In the early period, there was an invasion from Western countries. The kings at that time solved the problems by trading and making agreements with the Western countries for preserving independence even the country lost some territories.
In 1932, Thailand had a big change of the country’s government system, from the absolute monarchy system to the present democratic system with the King as the Head of State.
Educational reforms, including compulsory education, were introduced by King Vajiravudh, Rama VI (1910-1925). During the reign of King Prajadhipok, Rama VII (1925-1935), Thailand changed from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. The king abdicated in 1933 and was succeeded by his nephew, King Ananda Mahidol Rama VIII (1935-1946). The country's name was changed from Siam to Thailand with the advent of a democratic government in 1939. Our current monarch, King Maha Vajiralongkorn, is known as King Rama X of the Chakri Dynasty.