Turkey has been the target of several great conquerors in the past because of its advantageous location. This country falls under a region that holds pristine importance as the connection between Asia and Europe. And, holding the gates of that region was a powerful wish no great ruler could ignore. Hence, Turkey had always been under the rule of various governors in the past. The history of Turkey is so vast that it is primarily divided into two phases – Anatolia and Thrace. Anatolia narrates the influence of Central Asia while Thrace speaks of Europe’s empowerment that reflected on Turkey.
Anatolia has been under the influence of several great dynasties. After the Crusades, this region had a Persian influence and the Turks were ruling smaller zones under the emperorship of Persia. There were internal battles and protests that invited rulers like Alexander the Great to invade Persia several times before establishing his conquest in this region. After the death of Alexander the Great, several rulers from Egypt, Pontus and more tried to establish their rule on the Turks. However, the Roman Empire played its political tactics by providing military protection to the local Turks. This way, the Turks came under the rule of the Byzantine Empire ruling from its capital, Constantinople, and this led to several developments in this region.
Thrace was also the seat of power in ancient times as claimed by Herodotus. Thrace was the birth of Indo-Greek culture that spread across the northern parts of Turkey in ancient times. The Thrace mode of government was more liked by the locals compared to the strict Persian rule. Thus, the true Turks wanted to establish liberty under the rule of the Thrace. That is how the Byzantine Empire originating in Thrace gradually took over in Turkey and ruled effectively for quite some time.
However, the Turkic people were not satisfied and wanted to create their own empire. As more and more people started migrating from Turkestan (modern Mongolia), the power of the Turkic people started rising. They formed their own force over the years and established the Ottoman Empire. This empire was at its glory in the middle ages and expanded its reign across North and East Africa, up to Central Europe, into Central Asia and more. However, towards the 18th Century, the Ottoman Empire started weakening under the attack of the rising powers in Europe, namely, England, Portugal, France, Spain and more and also under the rebellion of the Persians. This brought about the end of the Ottoman Empire with the Treaty of Sevres on 10 August, 1920.
Following this treaty, the rules were bent with the European powers gaining control over Turkey. This irked the people and slavery was no more an option. The call for independence was raised by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and the war of independence followed under the leadership of this military commander. Finally, in 1922, Turkey gained independence and the modern Republic of Turkey was established.